News & Events

One Day Intensive Training Program on Advanced Electronic Systems for students of Electronics & Communications and Electrical & Electronics Departments of Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering on 29th August 2017

Welcoming the Springboards Council, Vice Chairman, Mr R Ramamurthy, Mr P Balamurugan, Vice President, SPEL Semi Conductors and Mr K T Baskar, MD, Kriyatec IT Systems and Member, Springboards Council to the Intensive Training Program on Electronic Systems and Devices to First Year Students of Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering,Principal of the Institution Dr. S. Ganesh Vaidyanathan, in his Address expressed his concern on how India was facing an education crisis that is fuelling the work-readiness gap.

Addressing first year Electronics and Electricals, Communications Engineering students of the College, Mr R Ramamurthy emphasised that organizations across sectors must encourage students by offering work internships as education tends to be bookish, with a focus on rote learning instead of practical and experiential learning. He opined, that case studies, discussions, field trips, team-based projects, and other activity-based learning have been proven to be more effective in imbibing skills than lectures and textbook learning. Mr R Ramamurthy informed that the Employability Enhancement Task Force of Springboards Council underpinned the need to improve the education curriculum and make it more relevant for industry and that the long term solution for bridging the gap is to make work internships and apprenticeship a mandatory part of the school and college curriculum. Students need to go out and be exposed to the work world instead of sitting in a classroom, and organizations need to provide these learning opportunities in the long-term interest of students and their talent needs.

Ms. R. Kousalya, Assistant Professor, Department of ECE, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering in her lecture outlined how the science of electronics was considered to be a branch of physics and electrical engineering. Other points covered are :

The nonlinear behaviour of active components and their ability to control electron flows makes amplification of weak signals possible. Electronics is widely used in information processing, telecommunication, and signal processing. The ability of electronic devices to act as switches makes digital information processing possible. Interconnection technologies such as circuit boards, electronics packaging technology, and other varied forms of communication infrastructure complete circuit functionality and transform the mixed components into a regular working system.

The movement towards environmentally friendly products, including ‘green’ cars and more efficient energy use, coupled with the growing use of mobile phones and personal communications, is driving demand for semiconductors and sophisticated electronics worldwide. Semiconductor manufacturers today need to be constantly developing new materials and technologies to meet these needs.


A semiconductor diode is a device typically made up of a single p-n junction. The junction of a p-type and n-type semiconductor forms a depletion region where current conduction is reserved by the lack of mobile charge carriers. When the device is forward biased, this depletion region is reduced, allowing for significant conduction, when the diode is reverse biased, the only less current can be achieved and the depletion region can be extended. Exposing a semiconductor to light can produce electron hole pairs, which increases the number of free carriers and thereby the conductivity. Diodes optimized to take advantage of this phenomenon is known as photodiodes. Compound semiconductor diodes are also being used to generate light, light-emitting diodes and laser diodes.

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits.

The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. The first practically implemented device was a point-contact transistor invented in 1947. The transistor revolutionized the field of electronics, and paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios, calculators, and computers, among other things.

Mr. P. Balamurgan,Vice President,SPEL Semiconductor Limited in his Guest Lecture mentioned the following : Semiconductors are not sold in stores as electrical appliances but used in many electric appliances. For example, temperature sensors used in air conditioners are made with semiconductors. Rice cookers cook rice perfectly because semiconductors control the temperature precisely. CPUs that operate personal computers are also made with semiconductors. Many digital consumer products in everyday life such as mobile phones / smartphones, digital cameras, televisions, washing machines, refrigerators and LED bulbs also use semiconductors.

Semiconductor devices are nothing but electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, like as silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide, as well as organic semiconductors. Semiconductor devices have replaced vacuum tubes in many applications. They use electronic conduction in the solid state as opposed to the thermionic emission in a high vacuum. Semiconductor devices are manufactured for both discrete devices and integrated circuits, which consist of from a few to billions of devices manufactured and interconnected on a single semiconductor substrate or wafer.

In addition to consumer electronics, semiconductors play a central role in the operation of bank ATMs, trains, the internet, communications and other parts of social infrastructure, such as the medical network used for the care of elderly, among other things. Furthermore, efficient logistics systems help save energy and promote the preservation of the global environment. The number of car-mounted semiconductor devices has been increasing steadily. There are many types of car-mounted semiconductors. Particularly for future ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems), more semiconductors are expected to be used.

In this way, semiconductors help us to live comfortable lives.

Wrapping up the Training Session, Mr K T Baskar, MD, Kriyatec IT Systems and Member Springboards Council informed students that Springboards has been offering employability enhancement training modules for first year students on soft skills characterizing certain career attributes that individuals must possess like the ability to work on a team, communication skills, leadership skills, customer service and problem solving skills. To meet the requirements of this globalised world every student should have a strong command in English and should be adept in Soft Skills along with hard skill. Attitude and positive energy is what the industry needs which is impossible without proper soft skills training, he added. Spelling out the challenges academic institutions are facing in enhancement of soft skills in their young graduates stated that HR managers are under pressure to get the right skilled graduates who can take ahead the firm to growth and success. Springboards Employability skill enhancement programs ensure both employment opportunity and ability enhancement modules in the academic curriculum. Dr S Muthukumar, HoD, Electronics & Communication Engineering Department thanked Springboards Council and SPEL Semiconductors Ltd. for the valuable insights on how the role of teachers has changed and continues to change from being an instructor to becoming a constructor, facilitator, coach, and creator of learning environments.

Training Program on Advanced Electronic Devices and Systems at GKM College of Engineering and Technology on September 5, 2017

Prof C Chellappan, Principal, GKM College of Engineering Technology(GKMCET) and Convenor, Employability Enhancement Task Force, Springboards Council in his Address at the Training Session on Advanced Electronic Devices and Systems organized by Springboards said that a layman’s imagination of an Electronics Communication Engineer, is a man working on an integrated chip in a sophisticated lab. With the evolution of the computer age, Electronics & Communication has crept into every sphere of human life, thus increasing its scope manifolds. Electronics is now a part of our everyday life, pocket FM radio to televisions, computers, mobile phones and even the high-end satellites that are helping in every path.

Picking up the cue, Mr R Ramamurthy, Vice Chairman, Springboards Council said that studying electronics and communication engineering is the dream of every second aspirant due to a number of reasons – growth, job opportunities, salary range and continuous industry growth.

Outlining the Services of Springboards, Mr R Ramamurthy said that the Organization is engaged in catalysing skills development spanning all sectors of the economy through partnerships. Led by a belief in the value of partnerships to accelerate the pace of skills education and development, Springboards, collaborative effort amongst all the stakeholders is directed towards plugging the skills and knowledge gaps. Keeping employability of the future workforce in the spotlight, Springboards avowed objective is to work as partners in progress with the government as proponents of enhancing competitiveness of identified industry groups by way of increased productivity through skill up-gradation. The services of Springboards, includes imparting employability skill enhancement programs for employment opportunity and ability enhancement in the academic curriculum for fresher students in colleges and universities.

In his Special Address, Mr. M. Sankara, CEO, Chip Test Engineering Ltd. stated that taking educational scope into consideration, today’s world is coming up with new technological advancements every day. These new developments are done by the engineers turned scientists. In bringing their own thoughts in the world’s next brilliant technological advancement and this path can be achieved by producing quality Electronics & Communication Engineers. In-depth knowledge is required for such tasks and this further divides Electronics & Communication into various sub fields. This field has a great scope in India & other countries. There is bound to be huge demand for competent engineers in electronic industry to cope this demand in technology. The engineers would be involved in sustaining cutting edge technology to stay ahead in competition.

The salient features of Mr M Sankara s lecture covered the following points :

Electronics is the science of controlling electrical energy electrically, in which the electrons have a fundamental role. Electronics deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components (such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes, integrated circuits, optoelectronics, and sensors), associated passive electrical components, and interconnection technologies. Commonly, electronic devices contain circuitry consisting primarily or exclusively of active semiconductors supplemented with passive elements; such a circuit is described as an electronic circuit.

• An electronic engineer can find a job in Consumer electronics manufacturing organization , Telecommunication & IT industries, Health care equipment manufacturing , Mobile communication(2G,3G,4G), Internet technologies, Power Electronics, and other industries like steel, petroleum and chemical industry, directing control and testing production process.

• Electrical Technicians and technologists can specialize in technical sales, product representation, systems management, the design and manufacture of electronic devices and systems, or the installation, maintenance and repair of electronic systems and equipment.

• They may also work with computers and electronic equipment in the medical, manufacturing, industrial control, telecommunications, aeronautical and military fields. ECE also have several job openings & good pay-packages as compared to other branches.

• Electronics and Communication Engineers are acquired by top recruiters (both private and government) like DMRC, Siemens, Motorola, Intel, Texas Instruments, BEL, ISRO, DRDO, Accenture, Wipro, HCL Technologies, NVidia, Samsung, Tech Mahindra, Infosys, TCS, Conexant, MTNL, AIR, BSNL, Indian Air force, Indian Navy, Railways, Bharat Electronics Ltd and Flextronics and Philips Electronics.

All these developments have been fuelled by advances in communications technology. new protocols and coding schemes, new ways to represent video, images and speech as data, new means of delivering this information to users via cable, fiber, and increasingly via radio are constantly being emerged. These developments are, in turn, based on sound engineering principles.

Summarising the proceedings, Prof Krishnamurthy Prabhakar, Member, Springboards Council Stated that Industries have to be induced to partner with the academic institution directly for the development of human resources dedicated to their interests. This can happen through creating infrastructure, faculty sharing and direct support with funds. Practical training is of paramount importance in today's day and age. Internships with industry help students get a sound understanding of the way industries run while also being exposed to real life technical situations and problems that are not present during classroom lectures. Another important tie up between educational institutions and industry to raise the standard in education particularly in rural and semi urban areas is faculty training by industry experts and the industry trained faculty then imparting knowledge to the students.

Mr D Balasubramaniam, HoD, ECE, thanked Springboards for organizing the training program for students of GKMCET.

Advanced Training Program on IC Fabrication and Testing at Crescent University on 10th October 2017

Welcoming the delegation to the Advanced Training Program on IC Fabrication and Testing for final year students, Dr. S. KajaMohideen, Dean, School Of Electrical & Communication Sciences, Electronics & Communication Engineering of ,B.S. Abdur Rahman Crescent University stated that the University s objective for collaboration with Organizations such as Springboards was to analyse how teaching and learning can be transformed to meet the goals of college and career readiness and to equip students with the skills they will need in life.

Dr.K.Prabhakar, Member, Springboards Council in his Address stated that according to Goldman Sachs, India is projected to become the second largest economy in the world by the year 2050.Driving this positive sentiment is India’s demographic profile. India’s current population of 1.2 billion is expected to enlarge to 1.8 billion by 2045, with a significant expansion in its working age population of 15-64 years. The emerging demographic dynamics of the country ensures that it will have one of the youngest populations in the world, with the bulk of the population in the working age group. By the year 2026, 64.8 per cent of the Indian population is expected to be in the working age group.

• India's ESDM (Electronic System Design and Manufacturing) industry is forecasted to grow at a Compound Annual Growth Rate of 16-23 per cent to reach $171-228 billion by 2020. In 2015, India's ESDM industry is sized at $82 billion, growing at a CAGR of eight per cent from 2013. During 2016-17 the sector was buoyant and grew into a 100 billion plus opportunity and is estimated to grow further at a CAGR of 16- 23 per cent to reach $171-228 billion by 2020. He further stated that, many institutions have started to use ICT enabled content to aid in delivery. This is also applicable to long distance higher education programmes. This will play a major role in the future, in bridging the access to quality education as well as bridge the gap in the student to teacher ratio.ƒ

• The growing customer base and the increased penetration in consumer durables segment has provided enough scope for the growth of the Indian electronics sector. Also, digitisation of cable could lead to increased broadband penetration in the country and open up new avenues for companies in the electronics industry.

• To cope up with the potential electronics crisis, Government of India is constantly modernizing and upgrading certain policies which include policies like National Policy on Electronics (NPE), Electronics Development Fund, ‘Digital India’, ‘Make in India’ ‘Made in India, Made for World’, etc. massive employment initiatives for 2.8 Cr workforce to boost Indian electronics industry, under NPE over the period of next 8 years, are on. Consumer electronics have become an integral part of daily life and revolutionized the way we communicate, retrieve information, and entertain ourselves. Between cell phones, computers, televisions, iPads, and e-Readers, it is estimated that the average person in the India uses various electronic products. Rapid technological advancements and growth in the electronics industry have led to a constant stream of new products and a resulting decrease in the life span of electronics.

• The growing customer base and the increased penetration in the consumer durables segment has provided excellent scope for the growth of the Indian electronics sector. Also, greater digitisation could lead to increased broadband penetration in the country and open up newer avenues for companies in the electronics industry.

Mr. P. Balamurgan, Vice President, SPEL Semiconductor Limited while addressing students of Crescent University in the Training Program for Final Year Students stated that Semiconductor materials are useful by their behaviour and easily manipulated by the addition of impurities, known as doping. Semiconductor conductivity can be controlled by the electric or magnetic field, by exposure to light or heat, or by the mechanical deformation of a doped mono crystalline grid; thus, semiconductors can make excellent sensors. Current conduction in a semiconductor occurs free of electrons and holes, collectively known as charge carriers. Doping of silicon is done by adding a small amount of impurity atoms and also for phosphorus or boron, significantly increases the number of electrons or holes within the semiconductor.

Detailing the critical elements of semiconductor fabrication and testing Mr P Balamurugan stated that, when a doped semiconductor contains excess holes it is called “p-type”(positive for holes)semiconductor, and when it contains some excess of free electrons, it is known as “n-type”(negative for electrons) semiconductor, is the sign of charge of the majority mobile charge carriers. The junctions which formed where n-type and p-type semiconductors are joined together is called p–n junction.

The silicon (Si) is most widely used material in semiconductor devices. It’s having lower raw material cost and relatively simple process. Its useful temperature range makes it currently the best compromise among the various competing materials. Silicon used in semiconductor device manufacturing is presently fabricated into bowls that are large enough in diameter to allow the manufacture of 300 mm (12 in.) wafers.

Germanium (Ge) was a widely used in early semiconductor material, but its thermal sensitivity makes less useful than silicon. Nowadays, germanium is often alloyed with (Si) silicon for use in very-high-speed SiGe devices; IBM is a main producer of such devices.

Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is also widely used with high-speed devices, but so far, it has been difficult to form large-diameter bowls of this material, limiting the wafer diameter sizes significantly smaller than silicon wafers thus making mass production of Gallium arsenide (GaAs) devices significantly more expensive than silicon.

Semiconductor Device Applications

All types of transistor can be used as the building blocks of logic gates, which is useful to design of digital circuits. In digital circuits like as microprocessors, transistors so which is acting as a switch (on-off); in the MOSFET, for example, the voltage applied to the gate determines whether the switch is on or off. The transistors are used for analog circuits do not act as switches; relatively, they respond to a continuous range of input with a continuous range of output. Common analog circuits include oscillators and amplifiers. The circuits that interface or translate between analog circuits and digital circuits are known as the mixed-signal circuits.

Advantages of Semiconductor Devices

• As semiconductor devices have no filaments, hence no power is needed to heat them to cause the emission of electrons.
• Since no heating is required, semiconductor devices are set into operation as soon as the circuit is switched on.
• During operation, semiconductor devices do not produce any humming noise.
• Semiconductor devices require low voltage operation as compared to vacuum tubes.
• Owing to their small sizes, the circuits involving semiconductor devices are very compact.
• Semiconductor devices are shock proof.
• Semiconductor devices are cheaper as compared to vacuum tubes.
• Semiconductor devices have an almost unlimited life.
• As no vacuum has to be created in semiconductor devices, they have no vacuum deterioration trouble.

In a fairly short time span, industry has made a transition from largely manual manufacturing methods to some very sophisticated automated procedures which often require very little human intervention. Recent developments in such areas as solid-state electronics, microminiaturization, computers, microprocessors, programmable controllers and robotics have had a huge impact on industrial technicians and engineers. through each component and sub-system, and leading to a level of understanding sufficient to facilitate the management of overall system operation, and assessment and correction of malfunctions when they occur.

The electronics industry is going through an exciting phase due to revolutionary changes in technology, the launch of innovative products and the challenge of global competition. This has made it necessary for electronic product and component manufacturers to focus on continuous improvements in order to stay ahead of the pack.

Mr P Balamurugan also briefly touched upon the evolution of components and products :

• Miniaturisation: This refers to the creation of smaller devices or components for mechanical, optical and electronic products. Convergence is helping manufacturers to integrate multiple devices. The demand from consumers to reduce the size of the products, so that they are easy to manage, has also led to these products becoming smaller in size. The greater density of components in these products is usually made possible through VLSI designs. This also enables a lower cost of production, which translates to lower overall product pricing. Miniaturisation is on the rise and will impact the traditional components market as most of these components will get replaced by chip components and integrated circuits.

• Artificial intelligence: Consumers are becoming increasingly technology-conscious and are demanding products with built-in intelligence. This is resulting in electronics and consumer durable products being manufactured with intelligent functions and logic. For example, there are now washing machines that can sense the load and decide the appropriate washing cycles. Intelligence has moved beyond consumer products, and is also available in several medical electronics and industrial electronic products with CNC controlled functions.

• High frequency applications: Electronic integrated circuits and modules for high frequency applications will be in demand considering the increasing amounts of data that need to be transmitted within a very short time, whether it is in applications for communications, sensors or astronautics. Advances in integrated circuit technology are driving packaging and interconnect designers to accommodate more input/output connections and larger sized dies, which dissipate more power and operate at higher speeds. This, in turn, will generate demand for components and products suitable for high frequency applications.

• Dr. C. Tharini, Professor & Head, ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING,B.S. Abdur Rahman Crescent University proposed the vote of thanks and expressed keen interest to work jointly with Springboards on advanced training modules on other emerging topics.

Orientation Program on Subject Choice and Career Readiness at SRM Para Medical and Medical College on 7th October 2017

One of the initiatives of Springboards is providing on campus orientation to student learners from classes 8 to 12 on subject choice and career pathing in collaboration with eminent universities and colleges in tertiary education. The objective of this initiative of Springboards is to provide a platform to the youth of this nation to be multifaceted with education remaining at the core of everything.

Dr.C.Saravanan,Professor, Department of oral surgery, Dr.V.P.Hariharavel,Reader , Department of periodontics, Dr.Ganapathy, Dean, Department of occupational therapy, Dr.Bala,Department of Anatomy and Mrs.Sheeba jebakani,Lecturer, School of Nursing addressed student learners who visited the SRM Para Medical & Medical College on 7th October 2017 for Orientation in the medical stream organised by Springboards, Career Planning Task Force.

According to the University faculty, there is an increasing realisation on the importance of paramedical personnel in the health sector, especially in accident and trauma care. Paramedics are a boon to nursing homes and a dream for students, who have not been able to become full-fledged medical professionals. Health care delivery systems are undergoing rapid changes and the demand for skilled paramedical personnel is on the rise.

Other points outlined include:

• Almost all the diagnostic procedures are carried out by the paramedical staff and they have emerged a vital cog in the wheel of the health care delivery system. The population explosion coupled with the mushrooming of private and corporate hospitals has provided numerous opportunities for skilled paramedics.

• what s important is to know more about such Professionals who do a Blood Test or a massage or a therapy and aid the doctor for better treatment of the patient and hence make health care easy and effective. These Professionals are called as Paramedics.

• Medical education is very important and has many branches. There are people who go into the billing and coding aspect of the medical field, while others prefer to be hands on with the patients. The longest medical education is to become a doctor or surgeon. Ones who have a speciality have to take longer time getting to know their expertise and carrying out medical procedures. It is a great accomplishment, but it takes a great deal of time and work. You must know what you are doing before you can administer any drug or diagnose a patient.

• There is a clear misconception about the medical industry that only doctors serve the patients. Considering this, most of the students who want to make a career in medical industry choose pursuing MBBS and MD. But the truth is, there are many other people who support the doctors in carrying their tasks in hospitals, clinics and medical institutes. Nurses, anaesthetics, pharmacists etc are the people who stand by the doctor during the treatment and play an important role in running the medical facility. All these streams, excluding doctors, are known as Paramedical Courses.

• If you want to make a career in medical industry and do not have sufficient resources to pursue MBBS or MD, you can still fulfil your dream by joining the paramedical courses. The important part of the deal is that student learners will have to be aware about them after completing 10th standard.

• Some of the best paramedical courses after 10th are: Physiotherapy, Nursing Pharmacist, Lab Technician, Radiologist. There are also several other courses in the field of paramedical science and candidates with higher secondary science stream can enter into paramedical courses at the UG degree and UG Diploma level such as Bachelor of Science in Speech and hearing, Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology, Bachelor of Occupational Therapy, Diploma in Clinical Technology, Anaesthesia Technology, Radiation Technology, Optometry, Respiratory therapy besides emerging courses.

The Springboards Orientation Session concluded with a campus tour and visit to the practical labs and research facility.

Employability enhancement training program for First Year Students on 20th , 21st, 27th & 28th October 2017 at Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering

The Employability Enhancement Task Force of Springboards Council has adopted a set of guiding principles for its skills development initiatives that evolved from a skills gap analysis :

• Capacity building,
• Sustainable skill development programmes
• Focus on employability
• Global benchmarking

The Skills gap Analysis report has taken cognisance of the following factors :

• India’s workforce is young and growing fast: 250 million people will enter the labour market by 2025. As highlighted in the IMF’s World Economic Outlook, India is already among the fastest growing major economies in the world and projected GDP growth for the next two years remains an impressive 7-8%. India is extremely competitive in terms of labour and production costs, and has a successful culture of entrepreneurship. Foreign direct investment (FDI) has surged in the last few years as a result, which implies that investors are optimistic. India’s young workforce only adds to the attraction.

• However, sustained success is by no means guaranteed. The skills and employability of the 250 million young people joining the workforce over the next decade will be crucial. With globalization, innovation and digitalization driving global competition and exorbitant consumer expectations, goods and services will have to constantly evolve to remain relevant, as will the skills required to deliver them. It is estimated that six out of 10 young people entering the workforce by 2025 will be in professions that do not exist today.

• Businesses across India are reporting that it is becoming increasingly difficult to hire graduates who have the self-awareness and self-management skills to succeed in their organizations. In their opinion, these are the attitudes and behaviours that can determine success or failure in the workplace cluster of personal qualities.

With this as the backdrop the Springboards Training module revolves around the elements of employability which encompasses general skills, soft skills, hard skills, transferrable skills, retail skills and life skills.

The Springboards Trainers, Mr. R. J. Samuel, Mr. S.Niranjan, Mr. G. Gautham and Ms. Sheeba Florence enlightened fresher students of Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering in their 4 day session on the finer aspects of these skill sets, which are distinct and considered as minimum requirements to become employable.

The Training module encapsulates the employability elements required for a job aspirant to be successful . The scope of the module by and large covers the following:

• Soft skills refer to a cluster of personal qualities, habits, attitudes that have the potential to make someone a good student and compatible with the requirements of academia. Put simply, they are the ways in which you talk, you move around, listen and present yourself. They are learned behaviours, which develop as a result of a student learner s willingness and commitment to understanding the emotions of oneself and others. Emotional Intelligence is another term used in reference to soft skills. Students who possess such skills are more adept and academic savvy. They are able to gain a further understanding of tasks and successfully engage with them, enabling them to gain more control over their learning. As well as playing an important role in the development of students’ overall personality and performance, soft skills also amount to good skills in communication; presenting information in a clear and concise manner; team-building ability; leadership; time management; group discussions; and interviews and interpersonal skills. All of which are important for students’ academic development and growth.

• Employers want to select, retain and promote individuals who are dependable, resourceful, ethical and good communicators who are willing to work.

• Soft skills are important for fine tuning the student’s attitude to learning, motives, values… and deal with different situations responsibly and diligently. Emotional intelligence and soft skills strengthen students from within, which makes them a good predictor of academic success.

• These skills empower them to understand who they are and how best they can come across as competent individuals in any given situation. Because studying and gaining qualifications is often embarked upon to enhance employment prospects, it Is inevitable that employers will factor this into their criteria when selecting suitable candidates.

Thus, the skills that students are exposed to and expected to practice in academia should be representative of, and fulfil the requirements of the business world.

• Hard skills are often associated with general intelligence – there is an element to them that is fixed and consistent throughout a students academic history. However, the same cannot be said in the case of soft skills – they are flexible and can be developed through commitment and systematic practice. Up until recently, soft skills were almost unheard of, and for many they were deemed as unimportant, particularly in terms of their use in academia. However, today, the student experience is richer and more varied than it has ever been. This is a reflection of the skills set that employers are searching for in employees to ensure their commercial survival in a ever changing and global world – it is the search for the right candidate, with the right skills, who is available at the right time! Traditionally, hard skills were regarded as being the most important ingredient of academic success. Hard skills are academic skills, experience, and ones level of expertise.

• Transferable skills are valuable throughout your industry and even beyond. They’re the type of skills that can have a direct impact on a company’s bottom line, such as sales or web design, and can easily be verified by production numbers, a portfolio of an employee s work or some other easily recognizable form. They’re even more valuable if an employee has them to a greater degree than most in the field–that means being better than average.

• Retail skills enhances the ability to sell products, services, or trade directly to the general public. They’re the kind of skills that are not only valuable to employers, but can readily be converted to self-employment. Options for self employment are open to a student aspirant with such skills.

Orientation Program on Subject Choice at Madras School of Economics on 24th October 2017.

While addressing students of class 11 and 12 from Padma Subramaniam Bala Bhavan Matriculation School at the Orientation program organised by Springboards in Partnership with Madras School of Economics, Dr C Rangarajan, Former Governor of Reserve Bank of India & Chairman, Madras School of Economics (MSE) accentuated the utility and demand for Economics as a discipline, as it has thrown open significant avenues in the post reforms era, for well-trained economists as economic analysts, researchers and consultants.

1. While articulating the areas of specialisation in the field of economics in finance, agriculture, econometrics, rural development, health, business development, international economics, industrial law and human resource, Dr CRangarajan stated that the course syllabus in the tertiary level includes : mathematical economics, statistical economics, monetary economics, international economics, developmental economics, econometrics, public finance, economic policy making,Agricultural Economics,Labour Economics,Industrial Economics,Business Economics,Banking Economics,Environmental Economics,Developmental Economics,Rural Economics and Rural Development.

The Sessions by Prof K R Shanmugam, Director, MSE and the eminent faculty team comprising, Dr R Hema, Dr Zareena Begum, Dr Amrita Chatterjee highlighted the career prospects for economics graduates and post graduates in the public & private sectors, Indian Economic Services, Reserve Bank of India, Indian Economic Services, Indian Civil Services, National Sample Survey, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Planning Board, Planning Commission, National Council for Applied Economic Research and National Institute of Public Finance and Policy, World Bank, Asian Development Bank, IMF, Development Banks, Aid agencies, Financial Consultancy firms and Banks. Jobs such as economist, economic advisor, executive, analyst, consultant, researcher, financial analyst, business analyst, economic research analyst and stock market analyst, according to them, would offer student aspirants pursuing economics, both social prestige and financial stability. In the Student s Session, an overview of the openings for Economic graduates in MNCs, BPOs, KPOs, Business journals, newspapers were given. It was further stated, that after Ph.D. in economics entering into the field of teaching in colleges and universities was another option available. Other areas would be a successful career as a Corporate Lawyer after BA in economics followed by LLB. BA in economics and MBA placed one at a better position in the private sector, it was felt. Economic Journalism is another shining area for job perspective according to the students of MSE. Student aspirants were enlightened on some of the institutions offering economics in UG, PG and Phd – which include - Delhi School of Economics, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Indian Statistical Institute,University of Agriculture Science, Gokhale Institute of Economics & Politics, Madras School of Economics, IIT besides the prestigious and world recognised institution,the London School of Economics.